Bangladesh

 

Bangladesh remains one of the world’s poorest and most densely populated countries despite its considerable development gains in the past several decades, including in the areas of gender parity, education, and infant and maternal health (MEF, 2009).  Low economic strength, inadequate infrastructure, low level of social development, lack of institutional capacity, and a higher dependency on the natural resource base makes Bangladesh particularly vulnerable to climate stimuli (including both variability as well as extreme events). Recognizing these vulnerabilities, Bangladesh has developed many adaptation measures to address adverse effects of climate change based on existing coping mechanisms and practices.
 
Bangladesh, except for the hilly regions in the northeast and southeast and terrace land in northwest and central zones, is one of the largest deltas in the world, formed by the dense network of the distributaries of the mighty rivers namely the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Meghna. The country is located between 20°34’ to 26°38’ north latitude and 88°01’ to 92°42’ east longitude. The total land area is 147,570 sq. km. and consists mostly of low and flat land. A network of more than 230 major rivers with their tributaries and distributaries crisscross the country. It has a population of about 131 million (BBS, 2002) with very low per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of US$ 351 per annum (UNDP, 2004). Of this, just about a quarter was in the urban areas including the metropolitan cities . The country’s economy is primarily agricultural, and the majority of the population depends on agriculture for their livelihoods(USDS, 2010). The country’s main crops are rice and jute, along with maize, vegetables and tea.
 
Population of the country has been growing fast in the sixties and the seventies. The inter-census growth rates had been rising and then falling over the last four decades or so. The falling population growth rate had been possible due to a sharp decline in the total fertility rate which had fallen from 6.3 per woman of reproductive age (15-49) in 1975 to 3.0 by 2004 (NIPORT and Mitra and Associate: 2005). For the future under the assumed rates for this report, the expected population for the year 2030 is 186 million, 61 million in the urban and the rest 125 million in the rural areas. Most people, live in the rural areas. On the other hand, urbanization is growing fast in the country. Between 1961 and 1974, the rate of growth in urban population had been 6.7 % per annum. Between 1974 and 1981 it shot up further to 10.7 % per annum. Since then the rate has fallen, but between 1991 and 2001 it was 3.15 % which is just double the rate of overall population growth. The following section is found in the Meister Consultants Group study: *Floating Houses and Mosquito Nets: Emerging Climate Change Adaptation Strategies Around the World*

Related Content

National Adaptation Plans in focus: Lessons from Bangladesh

This briefing on the process to formulate and implement the National Adaptation Plan in Bangladesh considers firstly the country context and the climate change risks. The groundwork for supporting the NAP is considered, covering the policy, planning and budgetary framework, priority adaptation sectors in NDC, climate assessments, the implementation of adaptation actions and plans thus far. The briefing contains a timeline of the Bangladesh NAP process. Challenges, successes and opportunities are also discussed.

Economics of Adaptation: Toolkit

Supporting Bangladesh to advance their NAP process

 

Country background, Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement

Located in the Bay of Bengal and in the floodplains of several major rivers flowing from the Himalayas, Bangladesh is often considered as one of the country’s most vulnerable to climate change. Floods, tropical cyclones, storm surges and droughts are likely to become more severe and more frequent, having detrimental impacts on crop yields.
 
Despite these risks, the poverty ratio has fallen from 49 percent in 2000 to 23.2 percent in 2016. This rising affluence has been driven by growth in transport and construction services, industry, and agriculture, accounting for 53 percent, 32 percent and 15 percent of GDP, respectively. 
 
Currently Bangladesh has a substantial policy framework in place, designed to enhance food security and to protect the development gains made in recent decades. The upcoming 8th Five Year Plan (2021 – 2026), the Perspective Plan to 2040 and the 14 priority adaptation activities Bangladesh highlighted in their INDC, which later became their First NDC when they ratified the Paris Agreement in September 2016, provide an opportunity for the NAP process to integrate climate change adaptation planning into national budgeting and planning process. The successful planning of appropriate adaptation policies and effective implementation will safeguard development gains and help achieve the SDGs.
 

How has the NAP-GSP supported to date?

 

Undertaken a stocktaking of Bangladesh’s NAP process 

 

 

A stocktaking of Bangladesh's adaptation planning was carried out to identify achievements, gaps and a way forward. This included a National Stakeholder Dialogue where around 80 representatives from government, NGOs, academia and civil society attended.

 

Helped build capacity and  facilitated access to additional climate finance

 

 

This additional technical capacity allowed Bangladesh to submit a Readiness and Preparatory Support Proposal to the Green Climate Fund, which was approved in March 2018. The approved project - the Formulation and Advancement of the National Adaptation Plan in Bangladesh - will primarily focus on fostering long-term adaptation investment and enhancing national capacities for integration of adaptation into planning, budgeting and financial tracking processes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
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Coordinates: 
POINT (90.395507794515 23.695035827151)
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Project Brief / Fact Sheet

National Adaptation Plans in focus: Lessons from Bangladesh

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> Strengthening the first line of defence

03 September 2018 - A UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Exposure provides colourful insights into effort to expand the greenbelt of mangroves along the coastline of Bangladesh, to protect it from sea level rise, storm surges, and other extreme weather effects.
 
 

> Bracing for climate change in Bangladesh

18 July, 2018, Bangladesh - A UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Exposure captures the attempts made by institutions and communities to safegaurd the significatn development gains, made over the last 50 years, against the increasing impacts of climate change in Bangladesh.

 

> Interview with Government of Bangladesh on the countries NAP process

20 February 2014, Thailand - An interview with Mr. Ahsanul Aziz, Ministry of Environment and Forests Government of Bangladesh, by the UNDP/UNEP NAP-GSP about the climate change NAP process in Bangladesh, filmed at the NAP-GSP Asia Regional Training Workshop, Thailand, 17 - 20 February 2014.

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Feb 2014
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Government delegation from Bangladesh attends the NAP-GSP Asia Regional Training Workshop, Thailand
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Jan 2015
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The roadmap for the development and implementation of a NAP is approved
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Sep 2015
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Bangladesh submits its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the Paris Agreement, which includes their intention to formulate a NAP
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Sep 2016
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Bangladesh ratifies the Paris Agreement
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Sep 2016
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Bangladesh begins developing a NAP Readiness proposal to be submitted to the GCF
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Mar 2017
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A National Stakeholder Dialogue on the stocktaking for Bangladesh’s NAP process takes place with around 80 representatives from government, NGOs and civil society
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Mar 2018
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The project outlined in the NAP Readiness proposal is approved by the GCF for implementation

Interview with Government of Bangladesh on the countries NAP process

English

GEF SPA CBA Country Programme Report (2008-2012) - Bangladesh

The country programme report is a consolidated report for all activities and outcomes of the GEF SPA Community-Based Adaptation Project.

Reporting period is from 2008 to 2102.

Bangladesh - CCCD Project Identification Form

Project Identification form for the project "National Capacity Development for implementing Rio Conventions through Environmental Governance in Bangladesh”.

National Capacity Development for Implementing Rio Conventions in Bangladesh

Bangladesh is striving to translate its policy of environmentally sustainable development into on-the-ground level actions. This UNDP supported project furthers this objective by improving the performances of local and national institutions to develop an integrated national environmental framework in the three focal areas of – biodiversity, land degradation and climate change. 

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Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Coordinates: 
GEOMETRYCOLLECTION (POINT (90.175781225 23.0898383863), POINT (90.175781225 23.0898383863))
Funding Source: 

PIFs

Bangladesh - CCCD Project Identification Form

Financing Amount: 
$726,000
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

 

The outcomes of this project are

Outcome 1: Global environmental conventions mainstreamed into vocation training and re-training structures for public institutions in Bangladesh. A consortium of the leading national training institutes in the public sector will be enlisted (Outcome1.1) to provide  training curricula for training of trainers (TOT) (Outcome 1.2). In addition, the capacity of key staff throughout public institutions will be enhanced through training on various topics (Outcome 1.3)

Outcome 2: Global environmental conventions mainstreamed into human resources development systems for sustainable development practitioners. Training materials related to implementing the Rio Conventions will be developed and disseminated (Outcome 2.1). There will be training related to reporting to the global conventions such as CDM, CBA and REDD (Outcome 2.2).

Outcome 3: Improved multi-sectoral environmental policies and programmes and associated governance structures through generation of new knowledge by monitoring results from local initiatives (Outcome 3.1); improved capacity of national CSOs to monitor natural resources management through collection of empirical data and its use in forming policy brief, advocacy documents, and lobbying tools (Outcome 3.2). Formalised guidance addressing policy preparation and management approaches covering key issues such as coastal area developments, community based NRM, participatory decision making and implementation, etc. (Outcome 3.3)

Contacts: 
UNDP
Tom Twining Ward
Regional Technical Advisor
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