Source of Funds Approval/Endorsement

Taxonomy Term List

Strengthening Capacities of Rural Aqueduct Associations' (ASADAS) to Address Climate Change Risks in Water Stressed Communities of Northern Costa Rica

Based on the climate change scenarios there is an expectation that by 2080, annual rainfall is forecasted to reduce up to 65% in the Northern Pacific Region. These extreme conditions will exacerbate climate and water stress in some areas. The “Strengthening Capacities of Rural Aqueduct Associations' (ASADAS) to Address Climate Change Risks in Water Stressed Communities of Northern Costa Rica” project aims to improve water supply and promote sustainable water practices of end users and productive sectors by advancing community- and ecosystem-based measures in rural aqueduct associations (ASADAS) to address projected climate-related hydrological vulnerability in northern Costa Rica. On the demand side, the project will mainstream climate change knowledge and strategies into public and private sector policy and planning in order to promote adaptation of productive practice to maintain ecosystem resilience to climate change.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-84.287109381466 10.251411377812)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$5 million proposed financing from GEF SCCF
Co-Financing Total: 
US$26.6 million proposed co-financing
Project Details: 

The initial plan will be executed by the UNDP Costa Rica Country Office in close cooperation with Rural Aqueduct Association (ASADAS) and the Institute of Aqueduct and Sewers (AyA) and other relevant stakeholders. The Country Office will recruit a team of national and international consultants to undertake the activities. In the course of implementation UNDP Panama Regional Centre will be consulted for advice and guidance as requested.

This project targets three Socio-Ecological Management Units (SEMU) of Northern Costa Rica. The SEMUs 1, 2 and 3, as they are referred to, comprise the cantons (municipal territories) of Guatuso, Upala, Los Chiles, and La Cruz (SEMU 1), Liberia and Canas (SEMU 2), and Santa Cruz, Nicoya, Hojancha and Carrillo (SEMU 3). It has a total territorial extension of 10,608.9 sq-km and a population of 354,132 inhabitants. This region is targeted for SCCF financing as the supply of water resources is threatened by shortages as a result of climate change impacts.

Based on climate change scenarios there is an expectation that by 2080, annual area rainfall is forecasted to reduce up to 65% in the Northern Pacific Region. In the shorter term, rainfall decreases of 15% (2030) in 2020 and 35% in 2050. These extreme conditions will exacerbate climate and water stress in some areas, s

Currently the National Emergency Comission has declared a yellow alert due to a drought affecting the countys comprising SEMU 3. This will compound pressures as water consumption in the target area and is also expected to increase by at least 20% over the coming decades driven by an expected increase of exports of agro-industry products, while investments in water infrastructure, mainly by AyA (Institute of Aqueducts and Sewers), will be reduced due to fiscal and legislative constraints.

Sustained increased demand of water resources by the agriculture sector and lack of finance investment towards water infrastructure is beginning to create stress on water availability in the area. Actual productive practices, mainly pineapple, livestock and citric crops with a high water footprint index are increasing pressure on irrigation, which according to available data, most are rainfed (83% of the total) while irrigation accounts for 17%.

If climate change driven pressures are not addressed, Costa Rica´s SEMUs of the North region will inevitably experience significant water shortages that will have a severe economic impact on livelihoods and productive sectors. As a result of increased frequency of extreme weather events (particularly drought) local communities and farmers in Northern Costa Rica are currently facing reduction on their means of productions, as access to water and water infrastructure and facilities are critical to their livelihoods. Consequently the communities from the target area (SEMUs 1,2,3) are becoming increasingly vulnerable to climate variability.

Approximately 1,900 ASADAS exist as locally organized groups of men and women from the user communities who are interested in the non-for-profit management of the local aqueduct and sanitation system. In a decentralized manner, municipalities and ASADAS provide services to about 46% of the total Costa Rican population. ASADAS alone administer and operation water systems for over 30% of the population, primarily for those in rural areas and border regions. Existing aqueduct infrastructure is often outdated and overloaded causing inefficient water service delivery, which in turn complicates the collection of fees from end users. Instability in fee-collection leads to financial uncertainty, which impedes the AyA’s ability to plan for and implement targeted improvements and new investments.

Most ASADAS and the local governments of the target area need to develop the necessary skills and have access to knowledge tools and adequate investment, in order to address the scarcity of water supply. AyA’s current investment plan, including capacity development activities directed mainly to ASADAS, rarely incorporate community-based or ecosystem-based measures. In addition, financial institutions lack proven tools capable of providing correct incentives for private sector enterprises to integrate community and water-related adaptation measures. If these entities do not strengthen their capacities to cope with climate change, the vulnerability of rural populations of the Northern region of Costa Rica will increase.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Component 1. Building community-based infrastructure and technical capacities to address projected changes in water availability

Outcome 1.1: Infrastructure and technical capacity of ASADAs strengthened to cope with climate change impacts to aquifers in the target area.

Output 1.1.1.: Strengthened metering systems to track water supply to end-users (micro- and macrometers) in the ASADAS network provide updated information on climate-related risks and vulnerability of project area water resources.

Output 1.1.2.: Water catchment (well, spring, and/or rain), storage, and distribution systems in rural areas improved and resilient to climate change.

Output 1.1.3.: Water-saving devices installed in homes.

Output 1.1.4.: Pilot sanitation and purification measures (e.g., sludge management and dry composting toilets) and other adaptive technologies for wastewater management to improve water quality.

Output 1.1.5.: Water sources and associated aquifer recharge areas protected and/or rehabilitated through reforestation, natural regeneration, and other protection and conservation measures.

Outcome 1.2: The capacity of ASADA end-users in particular that of women, Maleku indigenous communities and Nicaraguan migrant workers to mainstream climate change adaptation into their livelihoods systems is built.

Output 1.2.1.: Community-based climate change training program with a gender focus and includes minority groups, such as indigenous communities. - Training Toolkit on good practices for water-conscious consumer behavior and biodiversity monitoring in place. - At least 1,500 household members and producers, including women (35%) trained to maintain and improve the use of water and sanitation in a context of increased climate impacts - Extension services (i.e., community outreach) for land use and production practices include course and support material

Outcome 1.3: Meteorological information integrated to sub-regional development plans and strategies to increase resilience of rural communities to address water variability.

Output 1.3.1.: Fifteen (15) new Automated Weather Stations (AWS) and/or Automated Flow Stations (AFS) installed to provide consistent and reliable environmental data in real time in the selected SEMUs.

Output 1.3.2.: Vulnerability Index, Adaptive Capacity Index developed and supporting the climate early warning and information system, and the Risk Management Plan for Potable Water and Sanitation (RMPPS).

Output 1.3.3.: Information monitoring system for the AyA and the ASADAS’ Management System (SAGA) to track the impact of adaptation measures with the aim to reduce the vulnerability of rural communities to address water variability due to climate change, and articulated to national-level information systems (National System of Water Resources and Hydrometeorological National System).

Output 1.3.4.: Climate early warning and information system on climate-related risks and vulnerability of project area water resources generated and disseminated to ASADAS, end users, and partners.

Component 2: Mainstreaming of ecosystem-based adaptation into public and private sector policy and investments in the targeted area.

Outcome 2.1: Ecosystem-based climate change adaptation measures are integrated into public and private sector policy, strategies and investments related to rural community water-sourcing infrastructure and services, i.e a national model of EcosystemBased Water Security Plans is developed by the project and formally endorsed by national institutions.

Output 2.1.1.: Four (4) participatory RMPPS implemented within each target canton (SEMU 1: Guatuso, Upala, Los Chiles, and La Cruz; SEMU 2: Liberia and Cañas; SEMU 3: Santa Cruz, Nicoya, Hojancha, and Carrillo).

Output 2.1.2.: The AyA and the CNE investments for the prioritized project area integrate climate change risks.

Output 2.1.3.: Ten (10) livestock and agricultural producing companies adopt a voluntary fee system (Certified Agricultural Products and Voluntary Watershed Payments) to pay for the protection of water resources.

Output 2.1.4.: Valuation modeling of ecosystem-based adaptation measures (UNEP methodology) and economic valuation of ecosystem services (UNDP methodology) support the integration of water-related risks and new ecosystems management practices within productive sectors (agriculture and livestock industry).

Outcome 2.2: The purchasing and credit policies of at least 20 agricultural and livestock trading companies and 5 financial institutions operating in the target region promote adoption of productive practices that help maintain ecosystem resilience to climate change.

Output 2.2.1.: Farmers incorporate ecosystem-based climate change adaptation measures into their production processes, making use of revised purchasing and credit policies of agricultural and livestock trading companies and financial institutions.

Output 2.2.2.: Knowledge management system allows disseminating data, information, and toolkits to foster and mainstream ecosystem-based adaptation practices in other water-intensive productive sectors across the country.

 

 

Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Component 1 - Building community-based infrastructure and technical capacities to address projected changes in water availability

Component 2 - Mainstreaming of ecosystem-based adaptation into public and private sector policy and investments in the targeted area.

Upscaling Community-Based Adaptation in Ethiopia

The "Upscaling Community-Based Adaptation in Ethiopia" project will work to empower communities to plan and implement adaptation interventions in a deliberate and proactive manner, reducing reliance on the Government of Ethiopia to provide already scarce resources for climate change adaptation. The five-year project will benefit from a US$8.8 million grant from the Global Environment Facility Least Developed Country Fund. The project builds on the successes of the Promoting Autonomous Adaptation at the Community Level in Ethiopia Project.

Building community self-reliance will enable project participants to tailor adaptation tools and technologies to  specific needs. At the local level, new technologies – or traditional technologies used in new ways – will be promoted to ensure that productivity and sustainability of livelihoods are maintained under a range of future climate change scenarios. These adaptation actions and associated technologies or practices will build on the natural resilience and innovativeness of Ethiopian communities to build their self-reliance and capacity to continue the adaptive process iteratively.

More specifically, an effective adaptation solution for vulnerable communities involves the availability of seasonal forecasts and assistance in interpretation of forecasts for implementation in their respective livelihood measures. Through forecasts and climate information services, individuals are able to make informed decisions and take advanced adaptive actions for the coming season. Woreda and urban communities need to be trained in the use of climate information as well as mobilized to plan and implement the most effective adaptation measures. Such adaptation strategies as climate-smart conservation agriculture, integrated and diversified farming systems, improved management of rangelands and other ecosystems, urban diversification of livelihood options are all in combination critical elements for a long-term adaptation solution designed for the unique risks and vulnerabilities of Ethiopia.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (43.593749991073 7.8960296000777)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$8.8 million GEF-LDCF Grant
Co-Financing Total: 
US$29 million cofinancing (US$27 million World Bank, US$2 million GiZ)
Project Details: 

 

The changes in Ethiopia’s climate are anticipated to result in a number of negative impacts on vulnerable communities, including droughts and floods. The impacts of past droughts and climatic changes have been particularly detrimental to Ethiopia’s agricultural sector. For example, seven major droughts have occurred over the past 25 years, five of which have resulted in famine. Furthermore, since 1988 Ethiopia has experienced six major floods. The number of flooding events and associated damages increased between 1996 and 2006.

At present, Ethiopia is experiencing one of the most severe droughts of the last 30 years brought on by El Niño events in 2015. The drought is impacting on the livelihoods of 10 million people, namely through food insecurity where the population has become reliant on humanitarian support through food aid. This has left 2.7 million people with malnutrition and 2.1 million without access to safe drinking water. In addition, the drought is causing losses to livestock and decreased agricultural production owing to crop failure.

Climate change is affecting sustainable development in Ethiopia. With a large part of the nation's agricultural production relying on rain-fed farming, the livelihoods of the majority of the population are sensitive to climate-related shocks, including drought and flooding. Climate change is likely  exacerbate the impacts of degradation of the country’s environmental resources – including arable land, water, pasture and forest – with connected impacts on Ethiopia’s food and water securities. Consequently, Ethiopian communities in both rural and urban settings will be impacted by this predicted climate change variability.

Currently, 8.2 million people are already considered “chronically” food insecure in Ethiopia, with 6.7 million people facing food insecurity. Both categories are characterised by a weak resilience to withstand climate-related shocks, such as severe droughts. Addressing climate change is of critical importance in Ethiopia as the economy remains reliant on: i) climate-sensitive agriculture and natural resources management; ii) rainfall; and iii) natural resource dependent energy – biomass and hydropower. Recent assessments have estimated that economic growth could decrease by up to 2.5% per year unless capacity building and climate change adaptation measures are implemented. Further to this, climate change is expected to further impact Ethiopia’s income inequality, affecting both rural and urban communities.

The long‑term preferred solution is for adaptation to be an integral part of Ethiopian livelihoods, specifically among vulnerable communities. The proposed project will empower communities to plan and implement adaptation interventions in a deliberate and proactive manner, reducing reliance on the Government of Ethiopia to provide already scarce resources for climate change adaptation. Building community self-reliance will enable them to tailor adaptation tools and technologies to their specific needs. At the local level, new technologies – or traditional technologies used in new ways – will be promoted to ensure that productivity and sustainability of livelihoods are maintained under a range of future climate change scenarios. These adaptation actions and associated technologies or practices will build on the natural resilience and innovativeness of Ethiopian communities to build their self-reliance and capacity to continue the adaptive process iteratively.

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Ouctome 1 - Strengthened institutional and technical capacity for coordination of climate‑resilient planning and investment

Output 1.1. Training provided on tools and methodologies for gender-sensitive climate vulnerability and risk assessments and gender-responsive adaptation planning at the kebele, woreda and city levels.

Output 1.2. Integrated climate change adaptation/disaster risk reduction plans – with gender action plans – developed at the regional, city and local levels for key sectors.

Outcome 2 - Access to climate-smart technologies and practices for cost-effective adaptation is enhanced

Output 2.1. Training-of-trainers undertaken for decision‑makers and technical staff in targeted woredas and cities on implementation of gender-sensitive adaptation technologies tailored to local socio-economic and environmental contexts, including using climate data and forecasts to inform adaptation interventions at the community level.

Output 2.2. Targeted training to farmers in selected woredas on climate-smart agricultural practices, including the use of seasonal forecasts and climate advisories in their farming decisions.

Output 2.4. Localised weather and climate advisories disseminated to provide real time agro-meteorological information to farmers, pastoralists and local decision‑makers.

Output 2.5. Adaptation technologies and climate-smart agricultural practices introduced and scaled in targeted woredas and cities.

Outcome 3 - Knowledge management system to store and disseminate the best adaptive practices for further upscaling and replication established

Output 3.1. Woreda learning centres established to share lessons learned and best practices outside of targeted communities.

Output 3.2. Cost-benefit analyses of the field-demonstrated adaptation measures to inform strategies and action plans.

Output 3.3. Knowledge-sharing mechanisms developed to ensure that best practices and knowledge generated through this and other initiatives is documented for replication and upscaling.

Output 3.4. Awareness-raising campaigns undertaken on climate risks and adaptation options for government staff and local communities.

Output 3.5. Monitoring and evaluation conducted.

Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Display Photo: 
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Ouctome 1 - Strengthened institutional and technical capacity for coordination of climate‑resilient planning and investment

Outcome 2 - Access to climate-smart technologies and practices for cost-effective adaptation is enhanced

Outcome 3 - Knowledge management system to store and disseminate the best adaptive practices for further upscaling and replication established

Integrated Flood Management to Enhance Climate Resilience of the Vaisigano River Catchment in Samoa

As a Small Island Developing State in the Pacific, Samoa has been heavily impacted by increasing severe tropical storms. In response, the Government of Samoa has adopted a programmatic approach to address the issue of climate change-induced flooding .
 
As part of this programme, the Integrated Flood Management to Enhance Climate Resilience of the Vaisigano River Catchment in Samoa project will enable the Government to reduce the impact of recurrent flood-related impacts in the Vaisigano river catchment. The river flows through the Apia Urban Area (AUA), Samoa’s primary urban economic area.
 
The primary direct beneficiaries include approximately 26,528 people in the Vaisigano river catchment who will benefit from upgraded infrastructure and drainage downstream, integrated planning and capacity strengthening, including planning for flooding caused by extreme weather events, and flood mitigation measures especially riverworks and ecosystems solutions in the Vaisigano River Catchment. Overall, 37,000 people will also benefit indirectly. The economic net present value of the proposed investment project has been estimated to reach approximately US$15.6 million, and to yield an economic internal rate of return of approximately 15.5%. The project is expected to run from 2017-2023.
Photos: 
Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (-168.57421877011 -13.228535498555)
Primary Beneficiaries: 
26,528 people living in the Vaisigano River Catchment in Samoa
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
US$65.7 million total. US$57.7 million from Green Climate Fund, US$8 million from Government of Samoa (as detailed in the ProDoc, Dec 2016)

Funded Activity Agreement - Samoa

ProDocs

GCF Funding Proposal

Project Details: 

GCF resources will be used to implement a combination of integrated watershed and flood management works including both hard and soft measures. This includes upgrading river works to cater to increased water flows during flood events (taking into account the likelihood of the increased frequency of extreme events), ensuring that infrastructure works, and home dwellings, government and private-sector buildings are made more secure and provide adequate shelter in case of floods and their aftermaths. Additionally, the project will ensure that when floodwaters occur, the excess waters are channeled away through an effective, efficient, and fit-for-purpose drainage system. The project will consequently play a critical role in assisting the urban population and economy to effectively manage the inevitable increased intensity and frequency of flooding.

Direct benefits from these interventions include reduced risk of damage to public and private infrastructure/assets; reduced possibility of loss of life; and enhanced land value in flood-prone areas. Indirect benefits include reduced losses in income/sales; reduced costs of clean-ups, maintenance and repairs; reduced costs of relief and response efforts; and reduced possibility of health hazards. In addition to these 26,000 direct beneficiaries, the general population of Samoa will benefit from the safeguarding of critical economic assets and learning that will be generated.

In addition, mid and upstream ecosystem and community-based adaptation measures will enhance capture, infiltration, storage and delayed release of rainwater in soils and biomass, and water retention ponds will serve both climate-smart agribusiness development and combat degradation of vulnerable ecosystems through appropriate agro-forestry land-use practices.

Addressing Climate Change in Samoa

Recent extreme events have resulted in approximately US$200 million worth of damages during each event. Climate projections for Samoa suggest that the risk of climate induced events will increase, potentially undermining development progress in urban Apia where the majority of the population and economic activity is located.

Given the topography of the country, extreme events result in significant river discharge that results in flooding of lowland areas. Recent tropical events such as Cyclone Evan have caused significant damage to both public and private assets as a result of flooding, resulting in serious health impacts. Urban infrastructure has suffered considerably from the recurrence of flooding and is unable to cope as climate change-related events are expected to become more frequent and intense.

Projected climate change scenarios cited by the Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) suggest that Samoa is expected to have more frequent and extreme rainfall events; more frequent and longer drought events; increased air and water temperatures; sea level rise; and more frequent extreme wind events.

 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

The project represents the Government of Samoa’s initial steps in operationalizing a comprehensive flood management solution for the likely consequences of extreme events in Apia, the capital with about 80,000 people. In this project, three interlinked project outputs will be pursued:

  • Capacities and information base strengthened for the Government of Samoa to pursue an integrated approach to reduce vulnerability towards flood-related risks;
  • Key infrastructure in the Vaisigano River Catchment are flood-proofed to increase resilience to negative effects of excessive water; and
  • Upgraded drainage in downstream areas to increase capacity and allow for more rapid outflow of flood waters.
Monitoring & Evaluation: 


Contacts: 
UNDP
Reis Lopez Rello
Regional Technical Specialist - Adaptation
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
gcf
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 


News and Updates: 

Funding Proposal approved by Green Climate Fund Board: 14 December 2016
Funded Activity Agreement (FAA) effectiveness reached: 11 July 2017
Local Project Appraisal Committee meeting (LPAC): 4 July 2017
Project Document signature between UNDP and Government: 21 July 2017

First disbursement of funds: August 2017

'Samoa kicks off climate adaptation project to benefit 1 in 3 citizens facing flood risk' UNDP, October 25, 2017. In the lead up to COP climate talks in Bonn, the launch of a Green Climate Fund-financed US$65 million project signals strong global support for climate-resilient development in Small Island Developing States. 

'Green Climate Fund Samoa project launch and inception workshop' - UNDP Samoa, August 21, 2017. The Government of Samoa, through the Ministry of Finance, and the United Nations Development Program held joint events for the GCF-funded project, 'Integrated Flood Management to Enhance Climate Resilience for the Vaisigano River Catchment' . The workshop presented the work plan for the project and prioritized activities ahead.
 

'Every dollar counts in fight against climate change - New GCF Funding for Samoa' - Samoa Observer, December 16, 2016. Op-ed celebrating Somoa's recently approved US$58 million Green Climate Fund project.

'Director General hails meeting outcome' -  Samoa Observer, December 15, 2016. The Director General of the Vailima-based Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (S.P.R.E.P), Leota Kosi Latu, has hailed the outcome of Green Climate Fund Board meeting in Apia. With three multi-million projects proposed by Pacific...
 
 

YouTube

 

Learn more about the climate challenges facing Samoa, and how UNDP is working to address those challenges and reduce risks.

Information in French / Informations en français: 


Display Photo: 
Subtitle: 
Flood Management in Samoa
About (Summary): 
As a Small Island Developing State (SIDS) in the Pacific, Samoa has been heavily impacted by increasing severe tropical storms. In response, the Government of Samoa has adopted a programmatic approach to address the issue of climate change induced flooding in Samoa. As part of this programme, the Integrated Flood Management to Enhance Climate Resilience of the Vaisigano River Catchment in Samoa project will enable the Government of Samoa to reduce the impact of recurrent flood-related impacts in the Vaisigano river catchment. The river flows through the Apia Urban Area (AUA), Somoa’s primary urban economic area.
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Output 1. Strengthening capacities and mechanisms for integrated approach to reduce flood-related risks in place.

 

Output 2. Key infrastructure in the Vaisigano River Catchment are flood-proofed to increase resilience to negative effects of excessive water.

 
 
Output 3. Drainage in downstream areas upgraded for increased regulation of water flows.
 

 

Civil Society Engagement: 


Mainstreaming climate risks considerations in food security in Tsilima Plains and Upper Catchment Area

The Tsilima Region – part of the densely populated Central Highlands agro-ecological zone – is known for its agricultural products, such as sorghum and barley, it is considered the breadbasket of Eritrea, and is the focus of the government’s current and future investments in food security. Being densely populated, the region’s ecosystems and natural resources face increasing pressure. In addition to this, climate change poses an additional threat to ecosystem goods and services – and therefore agricultural productivity and community livelihoods – in this area. Like many parts of the Africa, Eritrea, being located in the Horn of Africa, is currently facing climate change-induced threats to ecosystem services and agricultural productivity, and these are compounded by the impacts of signicant land degradation occurring in the country. In the Tsilima Region, these problems manifest through reduced groundwater recharge, which affects agricultural productivity. This is partly a result of decreased precipitation, shorter and more intense rainy seasons, which reduce the potential for infiltration, promotes run-off, and increased temperatures that promote evapotranspiration. It is also a result of over-abstration of groundwater within short periods, reducing the opportunities for natural recharge of groundwater aquifers and deforestation, leading to reduced capacity of soils to retain moisture and nutrients.

The project’s objective is therefore to integrate adaptation measures into ecosystem management and restoration and agricultural production systems to secure the benefits of the National Food Security Strategy (NFSS) and Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Action Plan. By doing so, the LDCF-financed project will support the implementation of Priorities 3, 4 and 5 of Eritrea’s National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) – which focus on livestock, forestry and water resources respectively. Furthermore, the project will mitigate the effects of floods and droughts, contribute to reduced soil erosion and increase soil fertility. Communities in the Tsilima Region will therefore be less vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The project will achieve this by enhancing the scientific and technical capacity of government staff – at national, Zoba and sub-Zoba levels – as well as academic and research institutions to identify, plan and implement climate change adaptation (CCA) interventions. This will facilitate the implementation of an ecosystem-based approach to CCA in sub-Zoba Dbarwa, in the Tsilima plains and upper catchments. The theory of change adopted for this LDCF-financed project comprises addressing the barriers discussed below and in Section II (Development Challenge) of the Project Document while contributing to the preferred solution discussed below through the delivery of three interrelated components.

Region/Country: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (38.364257769704 15.681551506462)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
9,050,000
Co-Financing Total: 
27,500,000
Expected Key Results and Outputs: 
1.1 Capacity of research institutions to undertake climate related research increased by over 50% as measured by changes in UNDP Capacity Scorecard.
 
1.2: Capacity of extension service institutions to provide knowledge based climate smart extension service to agriculture, livestock production and water management increased by over 50% as measured by changes in UNDP Capacity Scorecard: Collectively, outcome a and 2 above lead to: i) increased use of climate risk information in decisions related to the implementation of the IWRM action plans and increasing food production in ; ii) an improved score on the Vulnerability and risk perception index, disaggregated by gender (baselines at ppg); iii) Five comprehensive landscape adaptation plans formulated using the information generated under this component, complemented by community based resilience assessments.
 
2.1: Security of tenure improved for the communities of plains covering over 9000 hectares ( number of households and exact means of verification to be established during PPG);
 
2.2: By 2018, the amount of water available for irrigation increases by 30% over current baseline (of 28 million cubic meters) increasing the area under irrigation from 400ha to about 1000ha); baseline and target to be confirmed in PPG.
 
2.3: By 2018, more than 75% of farmers take up climate smart farming technologies and food production has increased by 30% , while livestock productivity increases by at least 30% (baseline determined at PPG); this leads i) over 75% of project beneficiaries have sufficient food and livestock products for most of the year; ii) an improved score on the “Vulnerability and risk perception index, disaggregated by gender”
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
News and Updates: 

Sowing the seeds of sustainability in Eritrea

In Eritrea, a small country in the Horn of Africa, land rehabilitation combats erosion and desertification, and helps restore agricultural productivity. The central highlands region of Eritrea, a densely populated agro-ecological zone, is largely considered as the ‘breadbasket’ of the country, and is the focus of the government’s current and future investments in food security. But the breadbasket has, over the years, been growing ever-emptier. Despite the relatively fertile soils, agricultural productivity had progressively declined as a result of increasing population pressure, unsustainable land and water use, and the effects of climate change (less rain, falling in shorter and more intense rainy seasons and resulting in increased run-off).

UNDP Medium
Monday 30 October 2017

 

Display Photo: 
About (Summary): 
This project integrates adaptation measures into ecosystem management and restoration of agricultural production systems to secure the benefits of the National Food Security Strategy (NFSS) and Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Action Plan. This will support Priorities 3, 4 and 5 of Eritrea's National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA), which focuses on livestock, forestry and water resources respectively.
Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 

Outcome 1.1: Capacity of research institutions to undertake climate-related research increased.

Outcome 1.2: Capacity of extension service institutions to provide knowledge-based climate-smart extension services to agriculture, livestock production and water management increased.

Outcome 2.1: Climate-resilient land use planning implemented over 9,000 hectares of the Tsilima Region.

Outcome 2.2: Integrated water management operationalised across the Tsilima Region, increasing water availability and land under irrigation.

Outcome 2.3: Increased food production through the implementation of climate-smart agricultural practices across the Tsilima Region. 

Outcome 3.1: Increased monitoring, knowledge-sharing and awareness at Zoba, sub-Zoba, Kebabi and community levels on: i) climate change risks; ii) climate- and ecosystem-smart watershed restoration; iii) climate-smart agricultural technologies and measures; and iv) the sustainable use and management of natural resources.

Project Dates: 
2016 to 2022
Civil Society Engagement: 
  • Existing CBOs strengthened, including inter alia Village Agricultural Committees, Water User Associations and Farmer Associations to coordinate local level participation in climate change adaptation, land use and development planning.
  • Local communities and households trained to undertake sustainable water use and management, including inter alia water harvesting, construction and maintenance of hard and soft engineering interventions.
  • Public awareness-raising and education campaigns conducted in the Tsilima Region using all forms of media (including inter alia print, radio, art and drama)

Effective Governance for Small-scale Rural Infrastructure and Disaster Preparedness in Lao PDR

Lao PDR is one of the poorest countries in the world and according to IPCC findings particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Low productive agriculture, poor infrastructure development and according low-levels of service delivery jointly contribute to low adaptive capacity of livelihood systems, which are already affected by impacts deriving from existing climate variability. Stresses on livelihoods will further increase due to expected climate change.

The project Effective Governance for Small-scale Rural Infrastructure and Disaster Preparedness in a Changing Climate (2013-2017) is working to ensure that the genuine needs of communities vulnerable to climate variability and change are fully reflected in local planning and budget processes, so that the development prospects are secured in face of increasing climate risks.  Barriers to remove include weaknesses in climate change analysis and planning at sub-national level, financial constraints in resourcing the additional costs of building greater redundancy into rural infrastructure, a silo approach to local planning whereby ecosystem functions and services are not taken into account, and the limited incentives that exist to encourage local officials and decision makers to address climate-related risks.

With the support of the Least Developed Countries Fund, the Government of Lao PDR is addressing the barriers through three components:

Capacity-building measures for climate sensitive planning targeting sub-district, district and provincial decision makers and planners will demonstrate the features and advantages of integrated ecosystems management and climate resilient physical infrastructure solutions.

Socially inclusive tools of project identification will ensure that the different vulnerabilities of target populations in a changing climate are tackled and climate-sensitive district budgets are elaborated and their execution monitored. This newly acquired expertise will facilitate the delivery of grants to implement climate resilient small scale infrastructure, benefitting 50,000 people, linked to the well-established UNDP/UNCDF supported block grant mechanisms (District Development Fund). This will further strengthen local governance and administrative systems for better planning, budgeting and implementation services.

Environmental sustainability and project integration will be achieved through measures to protect ecosystem functions in the immediate vicinity of physical infrastructure  covering 60,000 hectares, enhancing  capacities to regulate water flows and ensuring greater financial viability and social impact overall.

Photos: 
Level of Intervention: 
Key Collaborators: 
Thematic Area: 
Coordinates: 
POINT (106.721 15.3469)
Funding Source: 
Financing Amount: 
4,700,000 (GEF) as of January 2013
Co-Financing Total: 
375,000 (Government in kind), 4,210,000 (Government parallel), 4,150,000 (IUCN parallel), 21,857,896 (UNDP parallel), 280,000 (UNDP)
Project Details: 

Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR) is amongst the poorest and Least Developed Countries (LDC) in Asia and in the World. The UNDP Human Development Report 2011 ranked Lao PDR at 138 out of 187 countries in the Human Development Index (HDI) in terms of comparative measure of life expectancy, literacy, education, and standards of other countries worldwide. A major factor contributing to this high ranking is that more than 80% of Lao PDR’s population depend on natural resources, agriculture and forestry production as a main source of income , while the productivity of that sector, which accounts for only 30% of Lao PDR’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP)  remains low.

Poor infrastructure development in agricultural production, accessing markets, the supply of water for irrigation and domestic purposes, poor access to education and health facilities collectively contribute to high poverty rates and low development progress in Lao PDR. Only 17% of national rice production is derived from irrigated fields along the main streams. There is potential to increase the production of irrigated rice, especially through small-scale irrigation in uplands, which currently plays a minor role. 31% of the rural population still have no road access to markets and public utility services . The World Health Organisation estimates that since 1995 there has been a significant increase in the percentage of the rural population with access to water from an improved source – from 37% to 51% in 2008.  Access to both education and health facilities by 84% of the population is showing improvements in development standards . However, the low quality of associated services continues to contribute to poverty and remains to be improved.

Good and effective governance is a precondition for changing the service delivery situation and for achieving equitable and sustainable economic growth as laid out in the 7th National Socioeconomic Development Plan. It is expected that, with the support of the UN system, especially the poor and vulnerable will benefit from improved delivery of public services and greater participation in transparent decision-making by 2015 . This participatory approach applies also for initiatives that link climate change adaptation, disaster risk reduction and public service delivery.

Such an integrated approach is required since service delivery in MDG relevant sectors such as public health, education, water supply, sanitation and agricultural production has been a great challenge in the past due to existing current climate variability’s between dry and wet seasons. As an example, the flow of the Mekong at Pakse in Southern Laos is characterized by a mean difference in monthly discharge between driest and wettest seasons which is almost 15 fold. Therefore local communities and the public investments that support them already have to deal with a challenging water resource context, in which localized natural disasters linked to flooding, landslides and drought are common. 

Stresses on livelihoods within current climate variability will further increase due to climate change. The available climate science indicates that dry seasons are likely to increase in length in Lao PDR while wet season rainfall will occur in even shorter, more intense intervals. Analysis of historical rainfall data for the country indicates a clear trend towards more high intensity events when comparing the period from 1901 to 1953 with the period from 1953 to 2006. Recent vulnerability and adaptation analysis indicates that there has been an increase in the number of climate hazard related events (such as floods) over the past 20 years as opposed to the preceding 30 years. This is confirmed by MRC data which has identified a clear increase in the number of extreme flooding events across the country when comparing pre and post 1986 data. Further Lefroy (2010) states that while the incidence of tropical storms and hurricanes is very variable, there is evidence that the number and intensity of storm events has increased significantly in the last few decades of the 20th Century and that this trend appears likely to continue and increase. For the future annual precipitation for the Mekong region as a whole is projected to increase by 13.5% by 2030, with most of this occurring during the wet season (May – September).  While projected changes in dry season precipitation are likely to be smaller, significant decreases are possible in February and March as well as in November. The drier extremes of current projections indicate decreases of up to 25% against historical values.  Use of macro-scale hydrological models for a range of emission scenarios for Lao PDR indicate that, in the future, many of its sub-basins are likely to experience higher discharge (NAPA, 2009).
 

Expected Key Results and Outputs: 

Output 1.1: Technical capacity in climate resilient planning, focusing on links between improved ecosystem management and sustainability of investments in small scale rural water infrastructure, enhanced for at least 250 national, province, district and village officials, as well as other community stakeholders.  This output is designed to enable all other project Outcomes and Outputs by building in the necessary understanding of climate risks to strengthen local development planning from the project outset. The approach taken will be to build directly on the initial capacity assessment carried out during the PPG phase, and convert this into a detailed and fully costed capacity development plan. It will also provide a key collaboration point with the baseline ADB supported IWRM programme which is providing capacity development for IWRM at both national and province levels, largely the same audience of individuals.  

Output 1.2: Village level water harvesting, storage, and distribution infrastructure adaptation solutions (with associated ecosystem management options) identified, prioritised and integrated into district development plans. This output supports the annual planning exercise carried out by the District Development Support Committees. It will provide technical and organisational inputs to be arranged and delivered by MONRE and its province and district level structures.  It will help districts to secure an additional financial envelope for climate resilient investments, which will be delivered annually to districts bank accounts set up under Outcome 2.  It will also provide the starting point for more detailed subsequent field analysis through CRVA, to be carried out under Outputs 1.3 and 1.4.  While these are not mandatory investments they demonstrate the most likely areas for climate resilient investment and districts may choose for some to be carried forward into detailed design, as presented.

Output 1.3: Climate risk, vulnerability and adaptation assessments (CRVA) carried out at 48 project sites in 12 districts of Sekong and Saravane provinces and proposed climate resilient investments adjusted to take account of site specific adaptation concerns. This will support the detailed engineering design of the approved climate resilient investment projects.  A fundamental premise is that adaptation solutions are location specific. While there is some value in generic or ‘model’ solutions they will always need to be fine-tuned to physical, environmental and social realities on the ground. In some cases this will lead to an adjustment upwards in financial resources. In all cases the process of introducing and revising an approach via CRVA, will increase local ownership and ultimately the long term sustainability of the investment.

Output 1.4: Detailed climate resilient project investments finalised and tender documents prepared in 12 districts, as well as associated dialogues to facilitate the implementation of annual district investment plans in 12 districts.  Following on from fine tuning and building local acceptance and ownership, so investments will need to be tendered to contractors for which additional professional technical services will be required. In order cases this expertise will be found at the community level and the resources can be channelled directly from the district level against an agreed workplan and set of deliverables.

Output 1.5: Guidelines for climate resilient construction for small-scale rural infrastructure sectors (irrigation, water supply, rural roads, education, and health) developed, applied and revised. These guidelines will be presented in various policy forums with the intent of contributing to future adjustments to national standards that are applicable. The reforms of national standards are seldom made on the basis of the outcomes of a single project, however successful that project may be.  The success of this output will therefore depend upon the extent to which a broad range of experience can be gathered together, and national champions can be identified to support a reform process. 

Output 2.1: An incentive mechanism, rewarding districts performing well in planning, budgeting and implementation of climate resilient, ecosystem based small-scale water infrastructure is developed, tested and under operation to drive the delivery of LDCF climate resilient infrastructure grants. This output will result in the tailoring and extension of a pre-existing local development fund mechanism (the District Development Fund) to incorporate all the necessary skills, and capacities to channel and report on additional climate adaptation funding through national systems.  Through this approach the project seeks to ensure that the project can be easily replicated in other districts and can provide a means to access and channel other public resources in the future, both national budgetary resources and international funds.   

Output 2.2: At least 48 small-scale infrastructure investment projects (1 per district per year), including components of water harvesting, storage, distribution and/or irrigation of the priority lists that have been CRVA assessed are implemented benefiting 50,000 people.   Output 2 will follow a phased approach. In the first year 12 infrastructure investments will be selected from the V&A report (Annex 8) for further analysis and funding, applying the detailed CRVA approach. From the second year onwards the selection of investments will follow the same technical approach (V&A and CRVA) but influenced also by the newly established performance based mechanism leading to differing levels of financial allocation from one district to the next.

Output 3.1: Up to nine ecosystem management and action plans with a coverage of at least 60,000 Ha to protect 48 small-scale climate resilient rural infrastructure projects are designed, implemented and monitored for effectiveness. The management and actions plans, which will include budgeted field based activities, will be developed during Year 1 and progressively implemented from Year 2 onwards through specific interventions on the ground, which will be selected and designed using the existing local planning dialogues and structures.  This work will be carried out in close coordination with the ADB-IWRM planning being carried out for Sekong River Basin in the South. 

Output 3.2: Awareness-raising activities implemented, learning materials developed and disseminated and regular dialogues held between communities and tiers of the local administration on the linkages between ecosystems management and small-scale climate resilient infrastructure solutions. The main aim of this output will be to provide clear guidance and direction on how ecosystem based approaches can be integrated into local development planning, using infrastructure investments as a starting point. The opportunities for achieving this are likely to vary considerably from one district to the next depending on prevailing land use and management practices.  This Output will need to be delivered in parallel with Output 3.1 since it underpins the development of the ecosystem management and action plans. Much of the work will involve motivating local officials and other stakeholders to visit specific sites, view problems on the ground, and jointly identify solutions. The frequent repetition of this approach each year of the project will induce behavioural changes in the way planning is carried out, through the integration of more evidenced based information and through the involvement of a wider range of stakeholders in formulating and agreeing local plans. This work will build directly on the national water dialogues that have been carried out by MONRE with support from IUCN.

Monitoring & Evaluation: 

More information to come...

Contacts: 
UNDP
Keti Chachibaia
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate-Related Hazards Addressed: 
Location: 
Funding Source Short Code: 
LDCF
Programme Meetings and Workshops: 


Information in French / Informations en français: 


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Expected Key Results and Outputs (Summary): 


Civil Society Engagement: